This study examines possible covariates of left ventricular function two weeks and sixteen months after an acute infarction. It was performed in a group of 312 patients randomized double blindly to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) (n = 156) or placebo treatment and followed thereafter for at least one year. Two weeks after the infarction, enzymatic infarct size, infarct-related vessel, and number of diseased coronary arteries were significant determinants of the infarct-related regional wall motion (centerline method) (R2 = 0.25 to 0.60, P = 0.0001). Enzymatic infarct size, regional wall motion of both infarct-related and remote areas, reinfarction, and treatment allocation were significant independent correlates of ejection fraction (R2 = 0.76), end-diastolic volume (R2 = 0.20), and end-systolic volume (R2 = 0.69, P < 0.0001). Infarct-related coronary artery and predischarge end-systolic volume were significant independent covariates of ejection fraction at rest (R2 = 0.47) after sixteen months. Age, enzymatic infarct size, and predischarge end-diastolic volume were independent determinants of the maximal (R2 = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and peak exercise ejection fraction (R2 = 0.49, P < 0.0001).