Influence of membrane fouling by (pretreated) surface water on rejection of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) by nanofiltration membranes
Verliefde, Arne R.D. × Cornelissen, Emile R. Heijman, S.G.J. (Bas) Amy, Gary L. Petrinic, Irina Luxbacher, Thomas Van der Bruggen, Bart Van Dijk, J.C. (Hans) #
Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.
Journal of Membrane Science vol:330 issue:1-2 pages:90-103
The effects of surface water pretreatment on membrane fouling and the influence of these different fouling types on the rejection of 21 neutral, positively and negatively charged pharmaceuticals were investigated for two nanofiltration membranes. Untreated surface water was compared with surface water, pretreated with a fluidized anionic ion exchange and surface water, pretreated with ultrafiltration. Fouling the nanofiltration membranes with anionic ion exchange resin effluent, resulted in the deposition of a mainly colloidal fouling layer, with a rough morphology. Fouling the nanofiltration membranes with ultrafiltration permeate, resulted in the deposition of a smooth fouling layer, containing mainly natural organic matter. The fouling layer on the nanofiltration membranes, caused by the filtration of untreated surface water, was a combination of both colloids and natural organic matter.