American journal of hypertension : journal of the American Society of Hypertension vol:16 issue:7 pages:604-11
Discordant findings are reported on the left ventricular transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) mRNA levels in various rat models. Left ventricular TGF-beta(1) mRNA levels did not differ between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normal rats, between deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt and sham-operated hypertensive rats, but were increased in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and in post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. Renal cortical TGF-beta(1) mRNA levels were, however, higher in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor antagonism (AT(1)R) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) decreased left ventricular and vascular smooth muscle TGF-beta(1) mRNA levels in SHR and renal TGF-beta(1) mRNA in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and in SHRSP. In post-MI rats ventricular TGF-beta(1) mRNA decreased by AT(1)R antagonism. In essential hypertensive patients, TGF-beta(1) protein as well as TGF-beta(1) mRNA levels are hyperexpressed. The TGF-beta(1) overproduction in hypertension can be attributed to various factors such as elevated angiotensin II, increased systemic blood pressure (BP) per se, increased fluid shear stress and a differential expression of TGF-beta(1) linked to DNA polymorphism in the promoter. The Arg(25) polymorphism in the TGF-beta(1) gene is associated with higher BP. A higher plasma TGF-beta(1) concentration is found in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria and left ventricle hypertrophy. In these patients, AT(1)R antagonism and ACEI reduced these plasma TGF-beta(1) levels significantly.