International Journal of Artificial Organs vol:32 issue:8 pages:496-506
Purpose: Testing and optimizing of surgical therapies for chronic heart failure (CHF) requires large animal models. CHF has been induced in several large animal species. Sheep have modest body mass increase and demonstrate docile behavior and are therefore a preferred species in research on surgical therapies for CHF. Methods: A literature search for existing ovine CHF models was performed, using search terms "sheep" and "heart failure". Relevant secondary references were traced. Results: Rapid ventricular pacing produces rapid-onset CHF. Its severity ranges from moderate left ventricular failure to severe biventricular failure, depending on length and frequency of pacing. Its counterpart in human CHF is tachycardia-induced HF, since it is reversible upon cessation of pacing. Myocardial damage models include CHF induced by cardiototoxic drugs and ischemia. Ischemiabased models include coronary microembolization, occlusion and ischemia/reperfusion models. The microembolization model is relevant to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Coronary occlusion models exhibit variable functional impairment, some with aneurysm formation, and some with mitral valve regurgitation, depending on occlusion localization. They are relevant to CHF following non-reperfused myocardial infarction. Coronary occlusion/reperfusion models are relevant to the occurrence of human CHF despite coronary artery recanalization. Pressure overload of left and right ventricle is induced by aortic and pulmonary artery banding, respectively. Hypertrophy precedes CHF, as in patients with valve stenosis and hypertension. Volume overload is induced by valve damage or shunt creation. Atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most important clinical counterpart. Conclusion: Several ovine CHF models exist. Since they exhibit important cardiac pathology differences, the choice of model should be based on the specific experimental question.