Journal of endourology / Endourological Society vol:22 issue:5 pages:867-75
Nephrolithiasis during pregnancy can represent a clinical dilemma because of potential risks to both mother and fetus. While the incidence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis during pregnancy varies between 1 in 244 to 1 in 2000 pregnancies, the actual incidence is likely to be higher. A significant proportion of patients with asymptomatic renal calculi are detected incidentally in the nonpregnant population compared with pregnant women. Factors that contribute to the diagnostic challenges include anatomic and physiologic changes to the female urinary tract during pregnancy and the limitations on the use of ionizing radiation. The treatment of such patients requires a multidisciplinary team approach involving the urologist, obstetrician, and radiologist. The potential hazards of intervention (either surgical or medical) and anesthesia need to be considered carefully.