During the past decade several new potent immunosuppressive agents with different modes of action and different side-effect profiles have become available. Nowadays immunosuppression after renal transplantation is no longer one single regimen applicable to all patients. In the selection of the optimal immunosuppressive protocol, individual drug-related toxicity, recipient-related risk factors as well as donor organ characteristics have to be taken into account. This article will give an overview of the most recently developed immunosuppressive agents available for clinical use. Their individual mode of action and their different efficacy and safety profile will be described as basis for selection of each of these drugs in an attempt to tailor the optimal therapeutic regimen for the individual patient both in terms of short-term and long-term outcome.