Rare earth elements and yttrium geochemistry of dolomite from post-Variscan vein-type mineralization of the Nizky Jesenik and Upper Silesian Basins, Czech Republic
Kucera, Jan × Cempirek, Jan Dolnicek, Zdenek Muchez, Philippe Prochaska, Walter #
Journal of Geochemical Exploration vol:103 issue:2-3 pages:69-79
Rare earth elements and yttrium geochemistry of dolomite from post-Variscan vein-type Zn–Pb–Cu mineralization was studied in the Nízký Jeseník and Upper Silesian Basins. Combined with crush–leach analyses of fluid inclusions, the study provided important information on fluid–rock interaction, physico-chemical and redox conditions during crystallization of the dolomite. The mineralization is hosted by Carboniferous siliciclastic rocks, representing Variscan flysch and molasse sedimentation. Dolomite samples contain highly variable contents of REE (between 18 and 295 ppm) and Y (between 17 and 95 ppm). REY patterns are divided into four different groups which differ in regional provenance, LREE vs. HREE enrichment/depletion and significance of Eu, Gd and Y anomalies. These patterns can be the result of 1) precipitation of dolomite from near neutral fluids with important concentrations of complexing ligands as a main factor for the REY partitioning, 2) interaction of migrating fluids with host or basement rocks, or, most probably, 3) a combination of both.
Regarding the importance of complexing ligands, it is proposed that in all samples fluoride and chloride complexes prevailed over sulphate, bicarbonate and hydroxide complexes. Interaction of fluids with rocks was strongly affected by the fluid temperature. Dolomites which precipitated from fluids with homogenization temperature higher than 110 °C are mostly REY-enriched while fluids colder than 110 °C produced REY-depleted dolomite. The REY-enrichment may indicate higher effectiveness of leaching of REE-bearing minerals (probably monazite, allanite and biotite) at higher temperatures. The preferential loss of LREE can be caused by the recrystallization or remobilization of dolomite. Generally, an increase in salinity and contents of Cl and F in the fluids is mostly accompanied by a higher REY content in dolomite. Positive Eu anomalies and small negative Gd and Y anomalies are typical for most of the chondrite-normalized patterns. Positive EuCN anomalies in dolomites are most probably the result of an increase of Eh in the parent fluid. Distribution of Y is expected to be predominantly controlled by solution complexation.