Introduction. Protein-bound uraemic retention solutes, including p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate, contribute substantially to the uraemic syndrome. These and several other uraemic retention solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation. We investigated whether the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin reduced serum concentration of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate, through interference with intestinal generation. METHODS: We performed a single centre, non-randomized, open-label phase I/II study in maintenance HD patients with a 4-week, escalating dose regimen of oligofructose-enriched inulin (ORAFTI(R)Synergy 1, Tienen, Belgium) (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00695513). Changes in p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate serum concentrations as well as changes in p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate generation rates were analysed. RESULTS: Compliance with therapy was excellent. p-Cresyl sulfate serum concentrations at 4 weeks were significantly reduced by 20% (intention to treat, P = 0.01; per protocol, P = 0.03). Also p-cresyl sulfate generation rates were reduced (P = 0.007). In contrast, neither indoxyl sulfate generation rates (P = 0.9) nor serum concentrations (P = 0.4) were significantly changed. CONCLUSION: The prebiotic oligofructose-inulin significantly reduced p-cresyl sulfate generation rates and serum concentrations in haemodialysis patients. Whether reduction of p-cresyl sulfate serum concentrations, an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in HD patients, will result in improved cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven.