The Scandinavian Journal of Economics vol:112 issue:3 pages:471-488
This paper presents the empirical results of a comparison of technology licensing expenditures of German companies in order to test implications of the Gilbert and Newbery (1982) model. Aside from standard control variables, the motives for innovation expenditures are also taken into account. We differentiate between firms intending to secure their present position in the market (incumbents) and those intending to enter a new market (challengers). In line
with the prediction of the Gilbert and Newbery model, we find that incumbents show higher expenditures for technology licenses than potential entrants.