Hemodynamic modes of ventricular assist with a rotary blood pump: continuous, pulsatile, and failure
Vandenberghe, Stijn × Segers, Patrick Antaki, James F Meyns, Bart Verdonck, Pascal R #
ASAIO Journal vol:51 issue:6 pages:711-718
Pulsatile operation of rotary blood pumps (RBPs) has received interest due to potential concern with nonphysiological hemodynamics. This study aimed to gain insight to the effects of various RBP modes on the heart-device interaction. A Deltastream diagonal pump (Medos Medizintechnik GmbH) was inserted in a cardiovascular simulator with apical-to-ascending aorta cannulation. The pump was run in continuous mode with incrementally increasing rotating speed (0-5000 rpm). This was repeated for three heart rates (50-100-150 bpm) and three levels of left ventricular (LV) contractility. Subsequently, the Deltastream was run in pulsatile mode to elucidate the effect of (de)synchronization between heart and pump. LV volume and pressure, arterial pressure, flows, and energetic parameters were used to evaluate the interaction. Pump failure (0 rpm) resulted in aortic pressure drops (17-46 mm Hg) from baseline. In continuous mode, pump flow compensated by diminished aortic flow, thus yielding constant total flow. High continuous rotating speed resulted in acute hypertension (mean aortic pressure up to 178 mm Hg). In pulsatile mode, unmatched heart and pulsatile pump rates yielded unphysiologic pressure and flow patterns and LV unloading was found to be highly dependent on synchronization phase. Optimal unloading was achieved when the minimum rotating speed occurred at end-systole. We conclude that, in continuous mode, a perfusion benefit can only be achieved if the continuous pump flow exceeds the preimplant (baseline) cardiac output. Pulsatile mode of support results in complex pressure and volume variations and requires accurate triggering to achieve optimal unloading.