Current available techniques for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of tooth-biomaterial interfaces are mostly ineffective for brittle phases and impair integrated chemical and morphological characterization. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to determine the applicability of new focused ion beam (FIB) and broad ion beam (BIB) techniques for TEM preparation of tooth-biomaterial interfaces; (2) to characterize the interfacial interaction with enamel and dentin of a conventional glass-ionomer (Chemfil Superior, DeTrey Dentsply, Germany), a 2-step self-etch (Clearfil SE, Kuraray, Japan) and a 3-step etch-and-rinse (OptiBond FL, Kerr, USA) adhesives; and (3) to characterize clinically relevant interfaces obtained from actual Class-I cavities. METHODS: After bonding to freshly extracted human third molars, non-demineralized and non-stained sections were obtained using the FIB/BIB techniques and examined under TEM. RESULTS: The main structures generally disclosed in conventional ultramicrotomy samples were recognized in FIB/BIB-based ones. There were not any major differences between FIB and BIB concerning the resulting ultrastructural morphology. FIB/BIB-sections enabled to clearly resolve sub-micron hydroxyapatite crystals on top of hard tissues and the interface between matrix and filler in all materials, even at nano-scale. Some investigated interfaces disclosed areas with a distinct "fog" or "melted look", which is probably an artifact due to surface damage caused by the high-energy beam. Interfaces with enamel clearly disclosed the distinct "keyhole" shape of enamel rods sectioned at 90 degrees , delimited by a thin electron-lucent layer of inter-rod enamel. At regions where enamel crystals ran parallel with the interface, we observed a lack of interaction and some de-bonding along with interfacial void formation. SIGNIFICANCE: The FIB/BIB methods are viable and reliable alternatives to conventional ultramicrotomy for preparation of thin sections of brittle and thus difficult to cut biomaterial-hard tissue interfaces. They disclose additional ultrastructural information about both substrates and are more suitable for advanced analytic procedures.