This paper summarizes the findings of the Cadmibel Study, a cross-sectional population study of the health effects of cadmium, but only with respect to the cardiovascular system and calcium metabolism. The study disproved the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium would lead to an increase in blood pressure and in the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, there was a positive relationship between urinary cadmium (Cd-U) and both serum alkaline phosphatase activity and urinary excretion of calcium. The regression coefficients obtained after adjustment for significant co-variates indicated that, when Cd-U increased two-fold, serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary calcium rose by 4% and 0.25 mmol/24 h, respectively. These findings suggest that calcium metabolism is gradually affected as cadmium accumulates in the body. The morbidity associated with the latter phenomenon is still unknown, and requires further investigation, preferably in a longitudinal prospective population study, in which the incidence of morbid events would be monitored in relation to the cadmium body burden.