Prostate carcinoma is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in males. Imaging of prostatic lesions is of great importance and aids in oncologic management and monitoring of therapy response. Particularly molecular imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) has great potential. Using radio-labelled molecular probes, these approaches are highly sensitive and can provide key molecular and functional information on tumours. The identification of suitable targets based on unique genetic and biochemical features of cancer lesions is one of the core activities driving progress in molecular imaging of pathological processes. Nowadays, mainly metabolic probes are being used routinely for detection and staging of prostate cancer. The development of new specific receptor ligands and targeted probes and antibodies holds great promise to further enhance the performance of molecular imaging and to further improve the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer.