Local intracoronary delivery of recombinant adenoviruses expressing anti-migratory or anti-proliferative proteins including human constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), or herpesvirus thymidine kinase (TK) (combined with ganciclovir) was used to prevent neointimal formation in porcine coronary arteries. After balloon injury of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, animals received an intramural injection of adenovirus (1.5 X 10(9) PFU) carrying either the NOS3 cDNA (AdCMVNOS3, n = 12), the PAI-1 cDNA (AdCMVPAI-1, n = 12), the TK cDNA (AdMLPItk, n = 12), or no cDNA (AdpL+, n = 12). After 28 days, morphometric analysis was performed on coronary sections from all segments demonstrating injury. The internal elastic lamina (IEL) fracture length normalized to the IEL perimeter (initial injury) and the neointimal area normalized to the vessel area (response to injury) were used to generate linear regression lines and calculate an index of stenosis for the respective treatment groups. The response to injury was significantly smaller in AdCMVNOS3- and AdMLPItk-infected animals than in AdpL+-infected animals (slopes = 0.86 +/- 0.05 and 0.69 +/- 0.07 versus 1.11 +/- 0.06, p < 0.005 and p < 0.0001, respectively) but not in AdCMVPAI-1-infected animals (slope = 1.26 +/- 0.04, p = 0.04). No viral shedding was observed and there was no acute systemic toxicity after gene transfer. An increase in neutralizing antibody titers against Ad vectors was observed without any detectable response to the transgene products (NOS3, PAI-1). Local gene transfer of NOS3 and TK may hold promise as a safe and effective adjunctive treatment to reduce neointimal formation after percutaneous coronary intervention in humans.