Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Reviews on Cancer vol:1805 issue:1 pages:53-71
Immunogenic profile of certain cancer cell death mechanisms has been transmuted by research published over a period of last few years and this change has been so drastic that a new (sub)class of apoptotic cancer cell death, redefined as 'immunogenic apoptosis' has started taking shape. In fact, it has been shown that this chemotherapeutic agent-specific immunogenic cancer cell death modality has the capabilities to induce 'anti-cancer vaccine effect', in vivo. These new trends have given an opportunity to combine tumour cell kill and anti-tumour immunity within a single paradigm, a sort of 'holy grail' of anti-cancer therapeutics. At the molecular level, it has been shown that the immunological silhouette of these cell death pathways is defined by a set of molecules called 'damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)'. Various intracellular molecules like calreticulin (CRT), heat-shock proteins (HSPs), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, have been shown to be DAMPs exposed/secreted in a stress agent/factor- and cell death- specific manner. These discoveries have motivated further research into discovery of new DAMPs, new pathways for their exposure/secretion, search for new agents capable of inducing immunogenic cell death and urge to solve currently present problems with this paradigm. We anticipate that this emerging amalgamation of DAMPs, immunogenic cell death and anti-cancer therapeutics may be the key towards squelching cancer-related mortalities, in near future.