Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) lipid bilayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were stable and hydrophilic, were synthesized by in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 in an aqueous medium in the presence of DDAB. As-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectra, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All these data supported the formation of AuNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis data revealed that DDAB existed in a bilayer structure formed on the particle surface, resulting in a positively charged particle surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated that the DDAB bilayer coated on the surface of AuNPs was probably in the ordered gel phase with some end-gauche defects. On the basis of electrostatic interactions between such AuNPs and anionic polyelectrolyte poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), we successfully fabricated (PSS/AuNP)(n) multilayers on a cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) coated indium tin oxide substrate via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique and characterized as-formed multilayers with UV-vis spectra and atomic force microscopy.