Microscopy research and technique vol:66 issue:4 pages:179-185
DNA molecules immobilized on mica surface by various methods have been observed by atomic force microscopy both in air and in liquid. Divalent cations and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified mica surface have been used to immobilize the DNA molecules. Optimal DNA and divalent cations concentration for AFM imaging are presented. Among the different methods of modifying mica surface with APTES, the water solution modifying method appears to get the best results. When using high DNA concentration for AFM imaging, DNA networks can be formed. A simple method to extend long DNA molecules is demonstrated. The optimal imaging conditions and AFM operating techniques are discussed. Different DNA immobilizing methods have been compared and evaluated. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.