Oxidative stress and proinflammatory effects of carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Role of particle surface area and internalized amount
Hussain, Salik × Boland, Sonja Baeza-Squiban, Armelle Hamel, Rodolphe Thomassen, Leen Martens, Johan Billon-Galland, Marie Annick Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne Moisan, Frederic Pairon, Jean-Claude Marano, Francelyne #
Toxicology vol:260 issue:1-3 pages:142-149
The ubiquitous presence of nanoparticles (NPs) together with increasing evidence linking them to negative health effects points towards the need to develop the understanding of mechanisms by which they exert toxic effects. This study was designed to investigate the role of surface area and oxidative stress in the cellular effects of two chemically distinct NPs, carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), on the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). CB and TiO2 NPs were taken up by 16HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner and were localized within the endosomes or free in the cytoplasm. Oxidative stress produced inside the cell by NPs was well correlated to the BET surface area and endocytosis of NPs. Contrary to intracellular conditions only CB NPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) under abiotic conditions. Exposure of cells to NPs resulted in an increased granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA expression and secretion. Inflammatory effects of NPs were dependent on the surface area and were mediated through oxidative stress as they were inhibited by catalase. It can be concluded that NP induced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses are well correlated not only with the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface of the individual NPs but also with the internalized amount of NPs. Differences of even few nanometers in primary particle size lead to significant changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.