RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We tested deployment feasibility and intraarterial biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) self-expandable vascular stents in a porcine peripheral artery model. METHODS: To assess the thrombogenicity and neointimal response to oversized PET self-expandable stents, we implanted 10 stents in porcine common iliac arteries, followed by a 6-mm balloon inflation to 6 atm. RESULTS: All pigs survived until the study termination 6 weeks after stent implantation. Control angiography revealed stent closure in three pigs. Minimal stent luminal diameter (MSLD) was measured using a semiautomated edge detection algorithm. The difference in MSLD after stent implantation and at control after 6 weeks was not significant (4.9 +/- 0.5 mm-->4.7 +/- 1.0 mm). Histopathologic examination showed signs of thrombotic occlusion and revascularization in occluded stents. In patient stents only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response was seen. CONCLUSION: PET self-expandable stents implanted in porcine iliac arteries are possibly thrombogenic but do not lead to a significant neointimal response.