Journal of cereal science vol:50 issue:1 pages:11-21
During breadmaking, a continuous protein network is formed which confers visco-elasticity to dough. The properties of this protein network are highly dependent on the characteristics of the gluten proteins of the wheat flour. A good quality (highly elastic) gluten network retains the carbon dioxide that is produced by the yeast, giving dough and bread with optimal properties. However, the properties of the gluten proteins can differ substantially between wheat flours and are highly dependent on genetic, environmental and post-harvest conditions. Deficiencies in wheat quality for breadmaking can be overcome by incorporating exogenous components which alter the functionality of the gluten proteins during breadmaking. These include additives (e.g. potassium bromate, iodate, chlorine dioxide and chlorine, azodicarbonamide, ascorbic acid and peroxides) and enzymes affecting protein crosslinking. Transglutaminase, glucose oxidase, hexose oxidase and laccase all promote the formation of covalent bonds between gluten proteins and, hence, can serve as alternatives to chemical bread improvers. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.