Hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder originating from natural killer-like V delta 1-lymphocytes. This subtype has been described after different types of solid organ transplants. In this article, we describe the first 2 cases after liver transplantation. Both patients had thrombocytopenia with (hepato)splenomegaly but without peripheral lymphadenopathies and sinusoidal infiltration of the liver and spleen by monomorphic gamma delta-lymphocytes on pathological examination. The clinical and pathological findings, immunophenotypical profile, prognosis, and treatment are highlighted. In order to make an early diagnosis, physicians who take care of liver transplant recipients should be aware of the characteristic features of this posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Therefore, a diagnostic algorithm is proposed. Liver Transpl 15: 686-692, 2009. (C) 2009 AASLD.