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Title: Metallogenesis of stratiform copper deposits in the Lufilian orogen, Democratic Republic Congo.
Other Titles: Metallogenese van stratiforme koperafzettingen in het Lufilisch Orogeen, Democratische Republiek Congo.
Authors: El Desouky, Hamdy Ahmed
Issue Date: 24-Sep-2009
Table of Contents: Acknowledgments I
Table of contents V
List of figures IX
List of tables XIII
Summary XV

1. Introduction 1
1.1. Sediment-hosted stratiform copper deposits 1
1.2. Stratiform copper mineralization of the Lufilian Orogen 1
1.3. Previous metallogenic models in the Central African Copperbelt 2
1.4. Problem definition 3
1.5. Scope and objectives 3
1.6. Thesis overview 4

2. Regional tectonic and geologic setting 7
2.1. Tectonic setting 7
2.2. Katanga Supergroup 9
2.3. Lufilian Orogeny 13
2.4. Evaporites and breccia 14

3. Methodology 17
3.1. Remote sensing 17
3.1.1. Satellite imagery and pre-processing 17
3.1.1.1. ASTER 17
3.1.1.2. ETM+ 17
3.1.2. Lineament analysis 18
3.2. Sampling, petrography and point counting 19
3.2.1. Lufukwe and Mwitapile 19
3.2.2. Luiswishi and Kamoto 19
3.2.3. Fluid inclusions 20
3.3. Isotope geochemistry 21
3.3.1. Stable S, C, and O isotope analysis 21
3.3.2. Rb-Sr analysis 22

4. Genesis of stratiform Cu mineralization at Lufukwe 23
4.1. Study area and mineralization 23
4.2. Results of remote sensing analysis 24
4.3. Petrography and paragenesis 35
4.4. Point counting 37
4.5. Fluid inclusions 41
4.5.1. Petrography 41
4.5.2. Microthermometry 44
4.6. Discussion 44
4.6.1. Nature of the ore-forming fluids 44
4.6.2. Controls on mineralization and timing 46
4.6.2.1. Structural controls 48
4.6.2.2. Diagenetic controls 48
4.6.2.3. Lithological controls 50
4.6.2.4. Relative timing of mineralization 51
4.6.3. Implications for exploration 52
4.7. Mineralization model 52

5. Genesis of stratiform Cu mineralization at Mwitapile and its relation to Lufukwe 57
5.1. Study area and mineralization 57
5.2. Results of remote sensing analysis 57
5.3. Petrography and paragenesis 60
5.4. Point counting 67
5.5. Fluid inclusion microthermometry 67
5.6. Discussion on the Mwitapile mineralization 71
5.6.1. Fluid evolution 71
5.6.2. Porosity and permeability controls on mineralization 73
5.6.3. Timing of mineralization 73
5.7. Discussion on the sandstone-hosted stratiform Cu mineralizations of the Lufilian Foreland 74
5.7.1. Lufukwe mineralization 74
5.7.2. Comparison between Lufukwe and Mwitapile mineralization 75
5.8. Implications for exploration 77

6. Luiswishi and Kamoto: geology, petrography and fluid evolution 79
6.1. Cu-Co mineralization 79
6.2. Petrography and paragenesis 80
6.3. Fluid inclusions 89
6.3.1. Petrography 92
6.3.2. Microthermometry 93
6.3.2.1. Type-I fluid inclusions 93
6.3.2.2. Type-II and type-III fluid inclusions 96
6.4. Discussion 99
6.4.1. Fluid inclusion microthermometry 99
6.4.2. Cu-Co ore phases 107
6.4.2.1. Hypogene Cu-Co phases 107
6.4.2.2. Supergene mineralization 107
6.4.3. Comparison with earlier microthermometric studies 108
6.4.4. Timing of mineralization 109
6.4.5. Origin of mineralizing/remobilizing fluids 111
6.4.5.1. Pressure–temperature of fluid entrapment 112
6.4.6. Hydrothermal versus syn-sedimentary origin of mineralization 112

7. Luiswishi and Kamoto: isotope geochemistry 115
7.1. Results of stable (S, C, O) and radiogenic (Rb-Sr) isotope analyses 115
7.1.1. Sulfur 115
7.1.2. Carbon and oxygen 115
7.1.3. Rb-Sr 118
7.2. Interpretation and discussion 119
7.2.1. Sources of sulfur 119
7.2.2. Carbon and oxygen isotopes 122
7.2.3. Rb-Sr isotopes 128

8. Comparison with vein-type deposits 135
8.1. Kipushi deposit 135
8.2. Dikulushi deposit 137
8.3. Main mineralization/remobilization phases in the Lufilian Orogen 138
8.3.1. Lufilian Arc 138
8.3.2. Lufilian Foreland 138

9. Conclusions, mineralization models and future perspectives 141
9.1. Conclusions and mineralization models 141
9.1.1. Lufilian Foreland 141
9.1.2. Lufilian Arc (Katanga Copperbelt) 142
9.1.3. Evolution of copper mineralization in the Lufilian Orogen 147
9.2. Future perspectives 147
9.2.1. Geochronology 148
9.2.2. Chemical analysis of fluid inclusions 148
9.2.3. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry 148
9.2.4. Palaeothermometry 149
9.2.5. Remote sensing 149

Appendix A: Results of fluid inclusion microthermometry 151
References 161
Publication list of Hamdy A. El Desouky 181
ISBN: 978-90-8649-276-3
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Division of Geology

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