Handbook of nutrition in the aged. edition:4 pages:311-320
Aging is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. Smoking increases the risk of such diseases further. The intake of fruit and vegetables is often promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle to prevent chronic diseases. In this chapter we will discuss the health effect of smoking on cancer and CVD, describe the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and these diseases and review whether the negative health effects of smoking can be countered by fruit and vegetable consumption. Our review will focus on studies in the elderly where possible. Studies that reported on nutrients such as antioxidants were not taken into consideration.