Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics vol:316 issue:1 pages:162-168
KB130015 [KB; 2-methyl-3-(3,5-diiodo-4-carboxymethoxybenzyl)benzofuran] is a novel amiodarone derivative designed to retain the antiarrhythmic effects without the side effects. Unlike amiodarone, KB slows Na(+) current inactivation and could, via an increase in [Na(+)](i), potentially lead to Ca(2+) overload. Therefore, we studied the effects of KB on Na(+) and Ca(2+) handling in single pig ventricular myocytes using the whole-cell ruptured patch-clamp technique and K(5)fluo-3 as [Ca(2+)](i) indicator. KB at 10 microM did not prolong action potential duration but slightly increased the early plateau; spontaneous afterdepolarizations were not observed. The amplitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) transient was larger (434.9 +/- 37.2 versus 326.8 +/- 39.8 nM at baseline, n = 13, P < 0.05), and the time to peak [Ca(2+)](i) was prolonged. During voltage-clamp pulses, [Ca(2+)](i) transient peak was also larger (578.1 +/- 98.9 versus 346.4 +/- 52.6 nM at baseline, P < 0.05). Although L-type Ca(2+) current was reduced (by 21.9% at +10 mV, n = 9, P < 0.05), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content was significantly enhanced with KB. Forward Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange was significantly decreased after KB application, but reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was significantly larger, suggesting an increase in [Na(+)](i) with KB. This was confirmed by a 2-fold increase of the [Na(+)]-dependent current generated by the Na/K-ATPase (from 0.17 +/- 0.02 to 0.38 +/- 0.06 pA/pF, P < 0.05). In conclusion, as predicted from the slowing of I(Na) inactivation, KB130015 leads to an increase in [Na(+)](i) and consequently in cellular Ca(2+) load. This effect is partially offset by a decrease in I(CaL) resulting in a mild inotropic effect without the signs of Ca(2+) overload and related arrhythmias usually associated with Na(+) channel openers.