The value of intracoronary ultrasound for quantitative assessment of minimal coronary arterial diameter and for on-line evaluation of balloon angioplasty result was studied in 42 patients undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Measurement of minimal luminal diameter of 75 matched coronary arterial segments showed a significant correlation between both the ultrasound and angiographic method (r: 0.759; p < 0.001). Furthermore using intravascular ultrasound it was possible to classify the obtained coronary balloon angioplasty results. A preliminary correlation between ultrasound classification and the in-hospital acute rethrombosis as well as late restenosis was attempted in individual patients. Conclusions: 1) Clinical use of coronary ultrasound is feasible and safe in selected cases. 2) A significant correlation between intracoronary ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography is demonstrated. 3) Using intracoronary ultrasound seems promising for evaluation of the postangioplasty result, and may finally lead to improved selection of the interventional strategy.