Antenatal prediction of lung volume and in-utero treatment by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion in severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Deprest, Jan × Flemmer, Andreas W Gratacos, Eduard Nicolaides, Kypros #
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine vol:14 issue:1 pages:8-13
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe malformation with an overall survival between 30% and 90%. Survival in the presence of associated malformations is very low. The condition should be detected in ultrasound screening programmes, but whether and how prenatal imaging can accurately predict outcome remains a matter of debate. Predictions based on the lung area:head circumference ratio and liver position are best studied. This information is highly relevant in counselling patients, leaving to severe cases the option of termination of pregnancy as experimental prenatal intervention aiming to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia. The purpose of this review is to update current knowledge regarding predictive value of prenatal assessment in terms of neonatal survival. We will also discuss experimental evidence and clinical data regarding fetal tracheal occlusion.