Domain structure and lipid interaction in human apolipoproteins A-I and E, a general model
Saito, Hiroyuki × Dhanasekaran, Padmaja Nguyen, David Holvoet, Paul Lund-Katz, Sissel Phillips, Michael C #
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:278 issue:26 pages:23227-23232
Detailed structural information on human exchangeable apolipoproteins (apo) is required to understand their functions in lipid transport. Using a series of deletion mutants that progressively lacked different regions along the molecule, we probed the structural organization of lipid-free human apoA-I and the role of different domains in lipid binding, making comparisons to apoE, which is a member of the same gene family and known to have two structural domains. Measurements of alpha-helix content by CD in conjunction with tryptophan and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence data demonstrated that deletion of the amino-terminal or central regions disrupts the tertiary organization, whereas deletion of the carboxyl terminus has no effect on stability and induces a more cooperative structure. These data are consistent with the lipid-free apoA-I molecule being organized into two structural domains similar to apoE; the amino-terminal and central parts form a helix bundle, whereas the carboxyl-terminal alpha-helices form a separate, less organized structure. The binding of the apoA-I variants to lipid emulsions is modulated by reorganization of the helix bundle structure, because the rate of release of heat on binding is inversely correlated with the stability of the helix bundle. Based on these observations, we propose that there is a two-step mechanism for lipid binding of apoA-I: apoA-I initially binds to a lipid surface through amphipathic alpha-helices in the carboxyl-terminal domain, followed by opening of the helix bundle in the amino-terminal domain. Because apoE behaves similarly, this mechanism is probably a general feature for lipid interaction of other exchangeable apolipoproteins, such as apoA-IV.