OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the surgical treatment of 110 patients with an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Furthermore, we focus especially on 37 ureteral obstructions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1978 and 1996 we treated 110 patients for an IAAA. It concerned 101 men and nine women with mean age of 66.8 years. Emergency surgery was performed in 32 patients (13 ruptures) and elective surgery in 78 patients (only 23 asymptomatic). The IAAA diagnosis was made by CT scan preoperatively in 40% of the patients. Compression of 37 ureters in 23 patients (14 bilateral, 9 unilateral) was noticed and ureteral stenting was performed preoperatively in nine patients (12 ureters). The surgical approach was median laparotomy (88 patients) or retroperitoneal approach (21 patients). One patient was treated with an endovascular Min-Tec Stentor aortic graft by femoral approach. Suprarenal clamping was necessary in 44 patients. Ureterolysis of 23 ureters was performed. Three peroperative iatrogenic lesions were successfully treated intraoperatively. RESULTS: Fatal complications occurred in nine patients (8%), five patients after urgent surgery and four patients after elective surgery, all of them related to technical problems. Non fatal complications occurred in 22 patients, renal insufficiency was most important in ten patients (two permanent dialysis). The mean follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 0.5 to 15 years). Late survival was 68% at 5 years and 42% after 10 years. Seven patients presented late graft related complications, one fatal. In 14 surviving patients with 21 ureterolysed ureters, one needed a nefrectomy and one a bilateral Boari-plasty. In eight surviving patients with 11 stented ureters, one patient needed a small bowel interposition for ureteral stricture. After CT evaluation, all ureteral stents were removed 3 to 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Surgery for IAAA is quite complex. Mortality and morbidity are often associated with emergency or combined vascular and non vascular procedures. 2. When carefull operative repair is performed with minimal dissection of structures from the aneurysmal wall, excellent results can be expected. 3. Ureteral compression should be treated by ureteral stenting, preoperatively, to facilitate ureterolysis or even to avoid it. Regular follow-up CT control is recommended.