Elements of morphology: standard terminology for the lips, mouth, and oral region
Carey, John C × Cohen, M Michael Curry, Cynthia J R Devriendt, Koenraad Holmes, Lewis B Verloes, Alain #
American Journal of Medical Genetics A vol:149A issue:1 pages:77-92
An international group of clinicians and scientists working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we summarize the anatomy of the oral region and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the lips and mouth.