Increased LDL oxidation is associated with coronary artery disease. The predictive value of circulating oxidized LDL is additive to the Global Risk Assessment Score for cardiovascular risk prediction based on age, gender, total and HDL cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking. Circulating oxidized LDL does not originate from extensive metal ion-induced oxidation in the blood but from mild oxidation in the arterial wall by cell-associated lipoxygenase and/or myeloperoxidase. Oxidized LDL induces atherosclerosis by stimulating monocyte infiltration and smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. It contributes to atherothrombosis by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis, and thus plaque erosion, by impairing the anticoagulant balance in endothelium, stimulating tissue factor production by smooth muscle cells, and inducing apoptosis in macrophages. HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to risk of coronary artery disease. HDL prevents atherosclerosis by reverting the stimulatory effect of oxidized LDL on monocyte infiltration. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase inhibits the oxidation of LDL. PAF-acetyl hydrolase, which circulates in association with HDL and is produced in the arterial wall by macrophages, degrades bioactive oxidized phospholipids. Both enzymes actively protect hypercholesterolemic mice against atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL inhibits these enzymes. Thus, oxidized LDL and HDL are indeed antagonists in the development of cardiovascular disease.