Scandinavian journal of immunology vol:70 issue:1 pages:25-33
In a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma, we investigated the effects of multiple challenges, using toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known cause of occupational asthma.
On day 1 and 7, BALB/c mice received TDI or vehicle (acetone/olive oil). On days 10, 13 and 16 the mice received an intranasal instillation of TDI. Ventilatory function (Penh) was monitored by whole body plethysmography for 40 min after each challenge. Reactivity to methacholine was measured 22 h later. Pulmonary inflammation, TNF-a
and MIP-2 levels were assessed 24 h after the last challenge by broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). Other immunological parameters included total IgE, lymphocyte subpopulations in auricular and cervical lymph nodes, and IL-4, IFN-g and IL-13 levels in supernatants of lymph node cells, cultured with or without concanavalin A.
Early ventilatory function and airway reactivity increased in all groups that received a dermal application and one or multiple intranasal challenges of TDI. After multiple challenges, lung inflammation was characterized by neutrophils (~15%), and eosinophils (~4%), along with an increase in BAL MIP-2 and TNF-a levels. The auricular and cervical lymph node cells of all sensitized mice showed an increase in B-cells, Th-cells and an increased concentration of in vitro release of IL-4, IFN-g and IL-13 after stimulation with concanavalin A. Total serum IgE was elevated in dermally TDI-sensitized mice.
This protocol including multiple challenges results in a model that resembles human asthma, indicating that responses found in the model using a single challenge could be a good first indication for the development of asthma.