The American journal of cardiology vol:42 issue:2 pages:187-92
Coronary hemodynamics were studied intraoperatively in 65 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass grafting. Poststenotic coronary pressure and graft flow hyperemia were measured. Patients without coronary collateral vessels on arteriography (class A) were compared with patients with collateral vessels (class B). Patients in class A were grouped according to the angiographically determined degree of coronary stenosis. Eight of these patients with moderate coronary stenosis underwent intraoperative studies with transient complete coronary occlusion and were classified in the "acute" occlusion group. In class B all patients had complete coronary occlusion with good retrograde filling of the distal segment. In class A patients there was good correlation between the degree of stenosis and poststenotic pressure or hyperemic response. Stenosis had to be at least 80 percent before it produced a significant pressure gradient or graft flow hyperemia. In class B patients (those with complete "chronic" coronary occlusion), poststenotic pressure was significantly greater than in the class A patients with "acute" occlusion, significantly less than in the class A groups with 71 to 80 percent and 81 to 90% stenosis but not significantly different from values in the class A group with 91 to 99 percent stenosis. The hyperemic response was significantly less than in the "acute" occlusion group of class A, significantly greater than in the class A groups with 71 to 80 percent and 81 to 90 percent stenosis, but not significantly different from values in the class A group with 91 to 99 percent stenosis. It is concluded that (1) under basal conditions a coronary stenosis must be at least 80 percent to be hemodynamically significant, and (2) well developed collateral vessels produce in a completely occluded coronary artery hemodynamic changes that simulate those of a 90 percent coronary stenosis without collateral vessels.