Genital condylomata acuminata are nonmalignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumors in which HPV types 6 and 11 are most commonly found. Usual treatments for condylomata acuminata are nonspecific and are based on the destruction or removal of infected tissue. These procedures are often painful and are characterized by a high relapse rate. We report here what is to our knowledge the first double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the use of cidofovir, a nucleotide analogue, for the treatment of genital papillomavirus infections. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study; 19 received cidofovir, and 11 received placebo. The median number of warts and the median baseline wart area were comparable for both groups. Nine (47%) of 19 patients in the cidofovir group had a complete response (total healing), compared with 0 of the patients in the placebo group (P=.006). None of the patients in the cidofovir group experienced progression of the disease, compared with 5 (45%) of 11 patients in the placebo group. The side effects recorded for both groups were comparable.