Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe
Matura, Mihály × Goossens, An Bordalo, Olivia Garcia-Bravo, Begoña Magnusson, Kerstin Wrangsjö, Karin Karlberg, Ann-Therese #
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology vol:47 issue:5 pages:709-14
BACKGROUND: Peel oil from citrus fruits consists of R-(+)-limonene, which is one of the most commonly used fragrance materials in technical products and in fine fragrances. This substance forms allergenic oxidation products during handling and storage. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to study the frequency of allergic reactions to oxidized R-(+)-limonene in patients with dermatitis and find a suitable test preparation. METHOD: Patch testing with oxidized R-(+)-limonene was performed on 2273 patients at 4 dermatology clinics in Europe. RESULTS: Of the consecutive patients tested, 3.8% to 3.9% had positive reactions in two of the clinics; 6.5% had positive reactions in the third clinic; and 0.3% had positive reactions in the fourth clinic. A total of 63 patients showed positive reactions. In total, 57% of the patients did not react to fragrance mix or balsam of Peru. We recommend testing with 3% oxidized R-(+)-limonene in patients referred for patch testing. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of oxidized limonene allergy provides clinical evidence for the European classification of R-(+)-limonene that contains oxidation products as skin sensitizers.