A differential display technique was used to identify androgen-regulated genes in LNCaP prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. One of the genes markedly upregulated by androgens proved to be identical to differentiation-related gene 1 (Drg1; also described as RTP, Cap43 and rit42), a gene whose expression has recently been shown to be diminished in colon, breast and prostate tumors. We show that Drg1 is abundantly expressed in the (androgen-exposed) human prostate and that its expression is stimulated some 14-fold in androgen-treated LNCaP cells. The ligand specificity of the induction reflects the altered specificity of the mutated androgen receptor in LNCaP. In androgen receptor negative tumor lines basal expression is slightly higher than in LNCaP but inducibility is absent. These data suggest that Drg1 is a novel marker of androgen-induced differentiation in the human prostate.