Studies are reviewed in which the role of IFN-gamma in different models of inflammation in mice is examined: LPS-induced generalized Shwartzman reaction, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The particular role of the cytokine was studied by systemic administration and by blocking the endogenously produced cytokine by the use of neutralizing antibodies. IFN-gamma was found, depending on the model and circumstances, to exert an anti- or a pro-inflammatory effect. In the generalized Shwartzman reaction and ECM this cytokine has a disease promoting role. In EAE, on the contrary, endogenous as well as exogenous IFN-gamma exert a down-regulating effect.