Osteoporosis is the result of an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Currently, mainly drugs that inhibit bone resorption are available for the treatment of osteoporosis. A new approach in the treatment of osteoporosis is the use of anabolic agents that increase bone turnover, both bone formation and resorption. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential in the development and growth of the skeleton and for the maintenance of bone mass and density. We will review the evidence of GH and IGF-I in the pathophysiology and treatment of osteoporosis.