Patterns of BCR/ABL gene rearrangements by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in BCR/ABL(+) leukemias: incidence and underlying genetic abnormalities
Primo, D × Tabernero, MD Rasillo, A Sayagues, JM Espinosa, AB Chillon, MC Garcia-Sanz, R Gutierrez, N Giralt, M Hagemeijer-Hausman, Anne San Miguel, JF Orfao, A #
Nature publishing group
Leukemia vol:17 issue:6 pages:1124-1129
Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) is increasingly used for the identification of BCR/ABL gene rearrangements in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL). In the present study, we have explored the incidence of both typical and atypical iFISH patterns of BCR/ABL gene rearrangements in a series of 168 consecutive BCR/ABL(+) patients - 135 CML, 31 precursor B-ALL and two acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cases - and established their underlying genetic alterations through further molecular and chromosome analyses. Two different FISH probes (Vysis Inc., Downers Grove, IL, USA) were used: the LSI BCR/ABL dual color extra signal (ES) and the dual color dual fusion BCR/ABL probe (D-FISH). Our results show that most BCR/ABL+ patients ( 83%, including 88% of all CML, 61% of ALL and one of two AML) displayed typical iFISH patterns of either Major ( M) BCR/ABL (87% of CML, 13% of ALL and one of the two AML) or minor ( m) BCR/ABL gene rearrangements (1% of all CML and 48% of ALL cases) with the two probes. Further molecular and cytogenetic studies confirmed the presence of such typical rearrangements in all except one of these ALL cases who had coexistence of an MBCR/ABL and an mBCR/ABL gene rearrangement together with monosomy 9. In the remaining 29 cases ( 17%), up to five different atypical iFISH patterns were detected with the ES probe. Atypical iFISH patterns were most frequently due to additional numerical changes - most often supernumerary Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (7%) but also gain or loss of chromosome 9 ( 1%) or 22 ( 1%). Deletion of 9q sequences proximal to the breakpoint were also frequently observed with the ES probe (8%). Application of the D-FISH probe showed that in most of these latter cases (5%) deletion of 22q sequences distal to the breakpoint also occurred. The remaining cases with atypical iFISH had cryptic insertion of BCR in 9q34 ( 1%). Exact interpretation of each iFISH pattern was supported by FISH on metaphases and molecular determination of the BCR breakpoint. In summary, our results indicate that despite the high incidence of typical iFISH patterns of BCR/ABL gene rearrangements, atypical patterns are also found in BCR/ABL(+) acute leukemias; the precise definition of the alteration present in individual cases is dependent on metaphase studies and molecular definition of the breakpoint.