Musculoskeletal rehabilitation in osteoporosis: a review
Pfeifer, Michael × Sinaki, Mehrsheed Geusens, Piet Boonen, Steven Preisinger, Elisabeth Minne, Helmut W #
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research vol:19 issue:8 pages:1208-14
Measures of musculoskeletal rehabilitation play an integral part in the management of patients with increased fracture risk because of osteoporosis or extraskeletal risk factors. This article delineates current scientific evidence concerning nonpharmacologic approaches that are used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy for prevention and management of osteoporosis. Fractures caused by osteoporotic fragility may be prevented with multidisciplinary intervention programs, including education, environmental modifications, aids, and implementation of individually tailored exercise programs, which are proved to reduce falls and fall-related injuries. In addition, strengthening of the paraspinal muscles may not only maintain BMD but also reduce the risk of vertebral fractures. Given the strong interaction between osteoporosis and falls, selection of patients for prevention of fracture should be based on bone-related factors and on risk factors for falls. Rehabilitation after vertebral fracture includes proprioceptive dynamic posture training, which decreases kyphotic posturing through recruitment of back extensors and thus reduces pain, improves mobility, and leads to a better quality of life. A newly developed orthosis increases back extensor strength and decreases body sway as a risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures. Hip fractures may be prevented by hip protectors, and exercise programs can improve strength and mobility in patients with hip fracture. So far, there is no conclusive evidence that coordinated multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation is more effective than conventional hospital care with no rehabilitation professionals involved for older patients with hip fracture. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of combined bone- and fall-directed strategies in patients with osteoporosis and an increased propensity to falls.