The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals
Andersen, K E × Johansen, J D Bruze, M Frosch, P J Goossens, An Lepoittevin, J P Rastogi, S White, I Menné, T #
Toxicology and applied pharmacology vol:170 issue:3 pages:166-71
The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Repeated Open Application Test (ROAT) using two concentrations of isoeugenol, 0.2 and 0.05%. Seven controls without isoeugenol allergy were also included. The participants applied 3.72 +/- 1.57 (mean +/- SD) mg/cm(2) of coded isoeugenol solutions twice a day to a 3 x 3 cm(2) area on the volar aspect of the right and left arm, respectively. For each test site the applications continued until a reaction appeared or for a maximum of 28 days. The minimal criteria for a positive reaction regarded as allergic contact dermatitis was persistent erythema at the ROAT test site. All controls were negative and 16/24 (66.7%) of the included isoeugenol-sensitive subjects showed a positive ROAT to the 0.2% solution within the study period (Fisher's test, p = 0.0024). Ten of the positive patients also reacted to the 0.05% solution. The median number of days until a positive reaction to the 0.2% solution was 7 days and was 15 days for the 0.05% solution. There was a highly significant correlation between the patients' patch test threshold and the number of days until a positive ROAT. In conclusion, the time until an isoeugenol allergic individual reacts in a ROAT depends on the individual sensitivity as well as the exposure concentrations; for low concentrations of the allergen or low degree of sensitivity, the allergic contact dermatitis may develop after several weeks of exposure. Therefore, a negative ROAT after 7 days may be a false negative.