Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire vol:53 issue:2 pages:29-91
Tooth infraction and enamel fracture are the most simple traumatic crown lesions. When necessary the lesions can be covered with composite material. Follow-up of the traumatized tooth is necessary since pulp necrosis and obliteration can develop. In case of an uncomplicated fracture involving enamel and dentine immediate protection of the dentinal wound is important for the preservation of tooth vitality. In case of a negative vitality test, an endodontic treatment will be performed in case of a tooth with open apex only when supplemental clinical and or radiological signs of pulp necrosis are present. When a complicated enamel-dentine fracture is present, an endodontic treatment will be performed when root formation is complete. In case of a wide open apex, a pulp capping, partial pulpotomy or cervical pulpotomy will be performed in order to preserve vitality of pulpal tissues at the level of the root. Crown root fractures can be superficial, deep or vertical. In case of a superficial localisation of the fracture line, restoration with composite material or with the fractured tooth segment is indicated. Deep crown-root fractures can only be restored when the fracture line is localized not deeper than at 1/3 of the length of the root. In case of a vertical fracture, extraction is the only possibility. Root fractures on immature teeth are in most cases unilateral and have a good prognosis. In teeth with completed root formation, fractures at the level of the cervix have a poor prognosis. The fractured segment will be removed. Only when the remaining root segment is long enough, this part can be maintained. In case of a fracture at the mid-root level, repositioning and rigid splinting for a period of 8 weeks is necessary. When the tooth becomes non-vital, endodontic treatment is performed on the coronal part. Root fracture in the apical part does not necessary result in enhanced tooth mobility and immobilisation is not always necessary. Healing of a root fracture is only possible when the tooth is immobilized for a sufficiently long period. Regular control of tooth vitality is necessary since pulp necrosis can lead to an inflammatory reaction at the level of the fracture line.