Scandinavian journal of immunology vol:53 issue:2 pages:139-47
Interleukin (IL)-10, an immunomodulatory cytokine predominantly produced by monocytes/macrophages and T cells, inhibits several functions of dendritic cells (DC), monocytes and T cells including their cytokine production, but it stimulates B cell immunoglobulin (Ig) production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation. A precise knowledge of the mechanisms that control the IL-10 production is therefore highly important for understanding the immunoregulation. The IL-10 production was studied in cultures of freshly isolated human T cells. A rise in intracellular calcium as well as the common gamma-chain containing cytokine receptor triggering or CD28 triggering were found to be important signals for IL-10 induction. CD80, CD58, rIL-12 and rIFN-alpha all had efficacious and independent costimulatory activities on the IL-10 production, while PGE2 was inhibitory. Dependence on autocrine IL-2 signalling was shown by the effects of anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-2R monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), but the IL-10 production proceeded partly IL-2-independent when CD80 provided costimulation. Sensitivity to inhibition by CsA was not removed by CD80 or CD58 costimulation and/or by addition of rIL-12 or rIFN-alpha, pointing to the absolute requirement for calcineurin activity. These data reveal important differences in the regulatory pathways between IL-10 (a cytokine-inhibitory interleukin) and IL-2 (a cytokine-inducing interleukin), which can potentially be exploited therapeutically. The fact that CsA blocks the production of IL-10, which itself has important immunosuppressive properties, should be taken into account in defining immunosuppressive treatment schedules which include the use of CsA.