Gene therapy of central nervous system diseases is a rapidly emerging field in neuroscience. Potential applications are not restricted to congenital single-gene disorders; gene therapy of acquired and chronic diseases may be envisaged as well. Considerable progress has recently been made in the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. As a result, gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease could be regarded as a realistic alternative for the limited treatment options currently available. In this review, we highlight the most important developments in gene transfer techniques and vectors for in vivo and ex vivo applications. We will also give an overview of the current gene therapeutic approaches in animal models for Parkinson’s disease. Finally, based on the newest insights in the mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders new gene therapeutic targets and strategies will be put forward.