The influence of surface oxides on the distribution and release of nickel from Nitinol wires
Shabalovskaya, Svetlana A. × Tian, He Anderegg, Jarnes W. Schryvers, Dominique U. Carroll, William U. Van Humbeeck, Jan #
Elsevier sci ltd
Biomaterials vol:30 issue:4 pages:468-477
The patterns of Ni release from Nitinol vary depending on the type of material (Ni-Ti alloys with low or no processing versus commercial wires or sheets). A thick TiO2 layer generated on the wire surface during processing is often considered as a reliable barrier against Ni release. The present study of Nitinol wires with surface oxides resulting from production was conducted to identify the sources of Ni release and its distribution in the surface sublayers. The chemistry and topography of the surfaces of Nitinol wires drawn using different techniques were studied with XPS and SEM. The distribution of Ni into surface depth and the surface oxide thickness were evaluated using Auger spectroscopy, TEM with FIB and ELNES. Ni release was estimated using either ICPA or AAS. Potentiodynamic potential polarization of selected wires was performed in as-received state with no strain and in treated strained samples. Wire samples in the as-received state showed low breakdown potentials (200 mV): the improved Corrosion resistance of these wires after treatment was not affected by strain. It is shown how processing techniques affect surface topography, chemistry and also Ni release. Nitinol wires with the thickest surface oxide TiO2 (LIP to 720 nM) showed the highest Ni release, attributed to the presence of particles of essentially pure Ni whose number and size increased while approaching the interface between the surface and the bulk. The biological implications of high and lasting Ni release are also discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.