Title: Germanium MOSFET devices: Advances in materials understanding, process development, and electrical performance
Authors: Brunco, D. P ×
De Jaeger, B
Eneman, Geert
Mitard, Jerome
Hellings, Geert
Satta, A
Terzieva, V
Souriau, L
Leys, F. E
Pourtois, G
Houssa, Michel
Winderickx, G
Vrancken, E
Sioncke, S
Opsomer, Karl
Nicholas, G
Caymax, M
Stesmans, Andre
Van Steenbergen, J
Mertens, P. W
Meuris, M
Heyns, M. M #
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Electrochemical Society
Series Title: Journal of the Electrochemical Society vol:155 issue:7 pages:H552-H561
Abstract: Germanium possesses higher electron and hole mobilities than silicon. There is a big leap, however, between these basic material parameters and implementation for high-performance microelectronics. Here we discuss some of the major issues for Ge metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Substrate options are overviewed. A dislocation reduction anneal >800 degrees C decreases threading dislocation densities for Ge-on-Si wafers 10-fold to 10(7) cm(-2); however, only a 2 times reduction in junction leakage is observed and no benefit is seen in on-state current. Ge wet etch rates are reported in a variety of acidic, basic, oxidizing, and organic solutions, and modifications of the RCA clean suitable for Ge are discussed. Thin, strained epi-Si is examined as a passivation of the Ge/gate dielectric interface, with an optimized thickness found at similar to 6 monolayers. Dopant species are overviewed. P and As halos are compared, with better short channel control observed for As. Area leakage currents are presented for p +/n diodes, with the n-doping level varied over the range relevant for pMOS. Germanide options are discussed, with NiGe showing the most promise. A defect mode for NiGe is reported, along with a fix involving two anneal steps. Finally, the benefit of an end-of-process H-2 anneal for device performance is shown. (C) 2008 The Electrochemical Society.
ISSN: 0013-4651
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Semiconductor Physics Section
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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