Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in girls with precocious pubarche: a premenarcheal marker for polycystic ovary syndrome?
Ibáñez, Lourdes × Aulesa, Carles Potau, Neus Ong, Ken Dunger, David B de Zegher, Francis #
Pediatric research vol:51 issue:2 pages:244-8
In both obese and nonobese women, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essentially a disorder of hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance, and it may be heralded by precocious pubarche (PP; appearance of pubic hair in girls aged <8 y). The risk of progression from PP to PCOS is related to low birth weight, but there are no early biochemical markers of this risk. As increased plasminogen activator-inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) activity (act) is an early marker of cardiovascular risk in PCOS, we have sought abnormalities in young girls with PP. In 33 young PP girls (age range 6-11 y), PAI-1-act was increased (mean + SEM: 15.6 +/- 1.5 IU/mL) compared with age-, sex-, and pubertal stage-matched controls (n = 13, 10.7 +/- 1.9, p < 0.05). PAI-1-act levels were inversely related to birth weight SD score (r = -0.33, p < 0.05), and PAI-1-act levels were therefore higher in PP girls with low birth weights (n = 14, 19.5 +/- 2.5 IU/mL) than normal birth weights (n = 19, 12.8 +/- 1.5, p < 0.01). During longitudinal observation in 10 PP girls (mean time interval 2.7 y), PAI-1-act levels in early puberty were positively related to postmenarcheal insulin levels (mean serum insulin SDS postoral glucose, r = 0.65, p < 0.05), and showed a similar relationship to postmenarcheal testosterone levels (r = 0.61, p = 0.06). Together with low birth weight, increased plasma PAI-1-act levels in early pubertal PP girls may indicate those girls with greater risk of developing hyperinsulinemic-hyperandrogenism features of PCOS.