Nuclear Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase-1 (NIPP1) Directs Protein Phosphatase-1 (PP1) to Dephosphorylate the U2 Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Particle (snRNP) Component, Spliceosome-associated Protein 155 (Sap155)
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:283 issue:51 pages:35805-35814
Pre-mRNA splicing entails reversible phosphorylation of spliceosomal proteins. Recent work has revealed essential roles for Ser/Thr phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), in splicing, but how these phosphatases are regulated is largely unknown. We show that nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1), a major PP1 interactor in the vertebrate nucleus, recruits PP1 to Sap155 (spliceosome-associated protein 155), an essential component of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, and promotes Sap155 dephosphorylation. C-terminally truncated NIPP1 (NIPP1-Delta C) formed a hyper-active holoenzyme with PP1, rendering PP1 minimally phosphorylated on an inhibitory site. Forced expression of NIPP1-WT and -Delta C resulted in slight and severe decreases in Sap155 hyperphosphorylation, respectively, and the latter was accompanied with inhibition of splicing. PP1 overexpression produced similar effects, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated NIPP1 knockdown enhanced Sap155 hyperphosphorylation upon okadaic acid treatment. NIPP1 did not inhibit but rather stimulated Sap155 dephosphorylation by PP1 in vitro through facilitating Sap155/PP1 interaction. Further analysis revealed that NIPP1 specifically recognizes hyperphosphorylated Sap155 thorough its Forkhead-associated domain and dissociates from Sap155 after dephosphorylation by associated PP1. Thus NIPP1 works as a molecular sensor for PP1 to recognize phosphorylated Sap155.