Maintenance treatment with interferon-gamma and low-dose cyclophosphamide for pediatric high-grade glioma
Wolff, Johannes E A × Wagner, Sabine Reinert, Christiane Gnekow, Astrid Kortmann, R-D Kühl, Joachim Van Gool, Stefaan #
Journal of Neuro-Oncology vol:79 issue:3 pages:315-321
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of high-grade glioma in children is poor. PURPOSE: Interferon-gamma may increase the immune surveillance of glioma cells. Earlier clinical evidence had shown that low dose cyclophosphamide (CPM) increased immune response. METHODS: After induction treatment with simultaneous radiation and chemotherapy, patients were treated with individually increasing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) doses starting from 25 microg/m2/d s.c. increasing up to a maximum of 175 microg/m2/d within 7 weeks. Cyclophosphamide was given at 300 mg/m2 i.v. every 21 days. Forty pediatric glioma patients were enrolled (median age: 8.5 year, male: n = 22). Tumor locations included cerebral cortex (n = 8), basal ganglia (n = 4), brainstem (n = 24), cerebellum (n = 3), spinal cord (n = 1). Histologies were GBM (n = 14), AA (n = 14), LGG (n = 2, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma). There was grade IV toxicity for thrombocytopenia (10%) and leucopenia (2.5%), grade III toxicity for central nervous (2.5%) and hepatic (5%) side effects, no toxic death. The observation time of the six surviving patients was: 1.2, 1.9, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6 and 4.7 years respectively. The median overall survival (1 year) was not significantly different from a historical control group (0.8 years). The survival of pontine gliomas appeared even inferior when compared to the previous protocol (n.s.). CONCLUSION: Maintenance treatment with IFN-gamma and low dose CPM has no sufficient beneficial effect for the treatment of high-grade glioma.