European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases vol:27 issue:12 pages:1159-1164
Data about predictors of embolism in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) are conflicting. This study aimed to investigate clinical and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) characteristics in predicting embolism and six-month mortality. In this observational cohort study, 216 patients with definite left-sided IE, according to the modified Duke criteria, were prospectively recruited. All patients underwent TEE. 'Any embolism' was defined as embolism before or after initiation of antimicrobial therapy; 'new embolism' included embolism after initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Sixty-two of 216 patients (29%) experienced any embolism. New embolism occurred in 12 patients (6%), 7 of which were postoperative. Factors significantly associated with any embolism were community origin of IE and the etiologic microorganism, in particular staphylococci and nonviridans streptococci. Vegetation length > 10 mm showed a trend towards association with new embolism and a mobile vegetation was predictive for new embolism. Six-month mortality was 24% (52/216). In multivariable analysis, age, vegetation length > 10 mm, Staphylococcus aureus, and the type of treatment predicted mortality. Multiple emboli showed a trend towards association with death. In conclusion, any embolism occurred in over a fourth of patients. A mobile vegetation was significantly associated with new embolism, and vegetation length > 10 mm tended to be associated with new embolism. Vegetation length > 10 mm predicted six-month mortality, and multiple emboli showed a trend towards association with death.