Gynecologic and obstetric investigation vol:41 issue:4 pages:253-9
Cotinine levels in blood and cervical fluid of smokers and non-smokers were analysed using capillary-column gas chromatography. These levels were not related to numerical cell densities of intraepithelial S100-protein- and LN2-positive Langerhans cells or to MAC-387-positive macrophages in the stroma of the transformation zone of normal uterine cervices. A decrease in the number of Langerhans cells was noted in smokers, especially in those using oral contraceptives (OCs). Macrophages were more numerous in the endocervical stroma of smokers, suggesting a local response to smoke constituents. These findings may indicate a synergistic suppression of local cervical immunity by smoking and OCs.